Korean Martial Arts Terminology and the meanings of some of the words we use in class:​

General Korean Martial Arts Terms:

Chung - Blue Wave
Do - the way of
Kwan - School
Kwon - Fist
Dojang - Training hall (Dojo in Japanese Karate)
​Do bak - Uniform (Gi in Japanese Karate)
Hyung - Pattern, or Form (Kata in Japanese Karate)


Charyot - Come to attention
Kyung Nyae - Bow
Choon Bee - Assume Ready Stance
Sejak -  Begin
Porrow - Stop, come back to ready
Sheh - Rest
Gu mon - Stop​

Technical Terms:

Jirugi - Punch (sometimes seen as Jirigi, or even T'sirigi)

Bandal Jirugi - Crescent Punch

Degutja Jirugi - U-Shape Punch

Dollyo Jirugi - Turning Punch

Dwijibo Jirugi - Upset Punch

Ollyo Jirugi - Upward Punch (aka 'Uppercut')

Sewo Jirugi - Vertical Punch

Soopyong Jirugi - Horizontal Punch

Yop Jirugi - Side Punch

Chagi - Kick
Ahp Chagi - Front Kick
Bandhal Chagi - Crescent Kick

Bituro Chagi - Twisting Kick

Cha Chagi - Rising kick

Cha Mum Chagi - Checking kick
Dollyo Chagi - Turning Kick

Doro Chagi - Waving Kick

Goro Chagi - Sweeping Kick

Naeryo Chagi -Downward Kick
Yop Chagi - Side Piercing Kick

Chigi - Strike

Magki - Block

Chookyo Magki - Rising Block

Gyocha Magki - X-Fist Block
​Sudo Magki - Double Knife-Hand Guarding Block
Saju - 4-Directions  (This is used in the first basic exercises: Saju Jirugi & Saju Magkhi).

NOTE: The Korean language is a complicated, multi-faceted language, with two main dialects, and many adapted Chinese and Japanese words. When Romanticized (translated into literal English words), it's not as hard as it seems - you simply pronounce the word the way it looks. As an example... the word for 'begin' (Sejak) is pronounced just the way it looks in print: "Say-jack".

It really is that simple to use the parts of the Korean language that we use in class! So 'Yop Chagi" becomes "yop-cha-gee', and so on.

Recommended Black Belt


Kwang Gae (39 movements) - performed from Parallel Ready Stance with arms in High Twin Palm Pressing Block

Introduces Quick Step, Pressing Kick, Twin High Knifehand Block, Reversing Slide-step, 180 deg Pivoting Turn.

Self-Defense -

Working knowledge of all ranks' 1-steps and 2-steps (right side, left side and cross-side, advancing, withdrawing and avoidance movements).

Good Basic Grasp of The Following:

The advancing progression of weight-distribution management in the patterns.

The purpose and use of slide/slip and skip-stepping in fighting, as taught in the forms.

The purpose and use of the Inside/Outside Chamber Theory.

Discuss the differences in, and purposes of open-hand and closed-hand fighting techniques.

Explain why our school has returned to using original terminology, instead of modern sports terminology.

Briefly discuss the origins of Chung Do Kwan.

Be able to explain any of these concepts to a junior belt, while adjusting the conceptual terminology and imagery you use, to their individual belt-rank, age and maturity level.

All 1st Dan candidates must have a minimum of 30 hours of structured, supervised Teaching Time before testing (if you're attending class regularly, you will easily meet this requirement, as Master Hughes will periodically select all senior belts for training sessions).

5th Gup - Green/Blue Belt


Yul Gok (38 movements) - Performed from Parallel Ready Stance

(introduces Fast-Slow sequential movements, Arc-Hand Sweep, Half-Count, Forward Elbow Strike, and

X- Stance)


GBL  Segment is being revised since the changeover, these will be introduced once everyone has adapted 

          the new sequences from 9th Gup to 7th Gup.

Good Basic Grasp of 3 Movement Theories:

Describe why a movement is 'fast' in execution

Describe why a movement is 'slow' in execution

Demonstrate 'Half-Count' movements

2nd Gup - Red Belt


Hwarang  (29 movements) - Performed from Closed ready Stance C

Introduces Sliding-Step Techniques, Vertical Stance, Downward Knife Hand, Front-Foot Stance, Turning Kick, Rear Elbow Strike


RB     Segment is being revised since the changeover, these will be introduced once everyone has adapted 

          the new sequences from 9th Gup to 7th Gup.

Good Basic Grasp of 2 Movement Theories:

Describe the function of sliding your step

Describe the alternative circular Side Kick chamber from the Front-Foort Stance (preferred, for our school).

STANCES, With Their Weight Distributions

7th Gup - Yellow/Green Belt


Do San  (24 movements) - Performed from Parallel Ready Stance

(introduces 360 deg turns, 45 deg angles, wrist release, fingertip thrust and backfist)


YB # 1-7 (same-side grab releases/escapes with following counter-strike using hands or feet)

Good Basic Grasp of  4 Movement Theories:

Wrist-Release movement

Forming the finger positions for fingertip thrust

Altering center of gravity by moving your back leg

​Using stance transitions to effect an escape or a throw

1st Gup - Red/Black Belt


Chong Moo  (30 movements) - Performed from Parallel Ready Stance

Introduces High Blocking Screen, Low Blocking Screen, Rear Leg Bending Ready Stance, Flying Side Kick, Ridgehand Strike, Back Kick, 360 deg Jump/Spin


RBK    Segment is being revised since the changeover, these will be introduced once everyone has adapted 

the new sequences from 9th Gup to 7th Gup.

Good Basic Grasp of 2 Movement Theories:

Describe what a 'double action' flying kick means.

Describe the differences/similarities between a Block and a Screen (and when to use them).



8th Gup - Yellow Belt


Dan Guun  (21 movements) - Performed from Parallel Ready Stance

(introduces high techniques, 270 deg turns, combination blocks, and double blocks)


YB # 1-7 (same-side grab releases/escapes)

Good Basic Grasp of  4 Movement Theories:

C-Shaped Stepping

Inside/Outside Chambers

Targeting Before moving

​Attacking Arm/Withdrawing Arm simultaneous movement

9th Gup (White/Yellow Belt)


Chon Gi  (19 movements)  -  Performed from Parallel Ready Stance

(Introduces 180 deg turns and L-Stance / Walking Stance transitions.

Self-Defense Techniques

W/Y #1-10 Reversed

(WB #1-10, done in the opposite direction, so 'backwards' instead of 'forwards' and for #4, 'forwards' instead of 'backwards'.

Basic Stances:

Fixed Stance

Sitting Stance

Weight Distribution:

​Walking Stance - 60% front leg, 40%  back leg

L-Stance - 70% front leg, 30% back leg

Fixed Stance - 50/50%

Sitting Stance - 50/50%

Attention Stance - 50/50%

Parallel Ready - 50/50%

3rd Gup - Blue/Red Belt


Toi Gye  (37 movements) - Performed from Closed ready Stance B

(introduces Open 9-Block, Lateral Knee Strike, Double Counter-Rotating Forearm Blocks, W-Block, Reinforced Pressing Block, Knee to Head Strike, Low Fingertip Thrust, High Fingertip Thrust, Rearward Backfist, Combination X-Block/X-Stance (Low)


RB     Segment is being revised since the changeover, these will be introduced once everyone has adapted 

          the new sequences from 9th Gup to 7th Gup.

Good Basic Grasp of 3 Movement Theories:

Describe the function of the fixed elbows/closed stance

Describe the reason for doing a lateral knee strike on the Mountain Blocks

Describe the movements of the counter-rotating forearm blocks (You can pass this rank test without perfecting this technique, we'll continue to work on it in class)


This is just a sampling of the exciting stuff you will be able to experiment with and learn to do here. We are an 'Academy' - so we offer you more training opportunities than many commercial 'studios' would. 

The classes are fun and easy, you'll mostly be learning these things by hearing them mentioned and seeing them demonstrated numerous times in class. In a couple weeks, you'll already know most of it! And for proof - our 6 and 7-year olds learn the same stuff! And don't try to memorize all this stuff, we'll give it to you in small pieces when you're ready for it!

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​​​​​​​​Jung Kwon Martial Arts Asheville  

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Belt Ranks -

The belt ranks for color belts (GUP) start at 10 (White) and count down to 1 (Red/Black), and is the color of the belt.

Recommended Black Belt -  holds no rank, nor certification, it's a 6-month preparation period for 1st Dan.

Black Belt ranks (DAN) start at 1 (1st Dan) and count up, to 9 (Grandmaster). Ranks are shown by gold stripes on the belt tips.

For Higher Ranking Students:    The concept of 'FACINGS'.

All students will get some input on this subject starting at an early level, but once you reach somewhere around Green Belt, you should have a good idea of this concept. It's required knowledge for all ranks with red on their belts! (You can't teach it, if you don't know it!)

Simply put, 'Facing' indicates which way your upper body is pointed (or 'facing') during performance of a stance or technique. Facings are not always critical (sometimes they're even irrelevant), but in certain cases they are necessary for proper production of power and speed, and maintaining balance, in a technique.

Assuming the proper facing will allow you to perform a more accurate stance. For example, in Walking Stance (the first photo) if your torso is turned at an angle, you will lose stability ( your center of gravity is impacted). So by turning your chest in the direction of the stance (to the front) your feet will naturally feel better a little farther apart and better aligned, and your center of gravity will be lower).

4th Gup - Blue Belt


Juun Guun  (32 movements) - Performed from Closed ready Stance B

(introduces Rear-Foot Stance, Upward Palm Block, Reverse Vertical Elbow Strike, Upset Punch, X-Block,

U-Shape Block)


BL     Segment is being revised since the changeover, these will be introduced once everyone has adapted 

          the new sequences from 9th Gup to 7th Gup.

Good Basic Grasp of 3 Movement Theories:

Describe why the form transitions from L-Stance to Walking Stance when performing Vertical Elbow Strike

Describe the fighting Techniques involved in Ready Stance B

Explain the movement of the lower hand in performing the U-Shape Block

6th Gup - Green Belt


Won Hyo  (28 movements) - Performed from Closed Ready Stance A

(introduces Reinforced Upset Punch, Bending Ready Stance, Circular Blocks, Side Piercing Kick)


GB # 1-7  1-4 are 'stance-breaking' techniques; 5-7 are Jujitsu Arm-Bar techniques

Good Basic Grasp of  4 Movement Theories:

Anatomical movement of the arm as a whole

Functional movement of the shoulder and elbow

Altering your opponent's center of gravity through leg movements

​Using stance transitions to effect an Arm-Bar or a Takedown

10th Gup (White Belt)

Patterns - Performed from Parallel Ready Stance

Saju Jirugi  - 4-Direction Punch  L/R

Saju Maghki - 4-Direction Block  L/R

Saju Chagi - 4-Direction Kick  L/R (optional)

Basic Required Stances

Closed Stance (Attention)

Parallel Ready Stance


Walking Stance

Self-Defense Techniques     [ FYI - the one-steps are arranged in groups by major technique]:

WB #1-6 - all outer forearm blocks             1-6  Minimum Test Requirements for Small Children

WB #7-9 - all avoidance maneuvers           1-9 Minimum Test Requirements for Teens/Adults

WB #10-12 - all close-in reverse turning    1-12 constitutes a full set-list for your White Belt Rank

​Basic Terms (Korean)

Doback - Uniform

Dojang - Training Room

Basic Commands (Korean) - Don't worry! You'll learn all these in regular class, we use them every day.

Charyiot - Attention

Kyung Nyae - Bow

Choon Bi - Assume Ready Position

Sejack - Begin

Gumon - Stop

Parrow - Back To Ready

Sheh - Relax